By: Kyle Snow and Peter Pizzolongo
In late January 2014, researchers at the University of Virginia released a working paper with the provocative title “Is Kindergarten the New First Grade?" The paper amplifies concerns provided by other reports like “Crisis in the Kindergarten” and “What Happened to Kindergarten?” Critically, this paper uses data to describe changes in kindergarten that took place during the early years of No Child Left Behind (NCLB).
This report compares kindergarten teacher responses to surveys conducted in 1998 and 2006. The analyses validate what we have been hearing for a while now - that academic content and focus has become more prominent in kindergarten. The amount of time spent in literacy activities has dramatically increased over time, with a more modest increase in mathematics and drop in time spent on the arts and physical education. In addition, teachers in 2006 report spending more time on activities that were only briefly taught, or not yet introduced, in kindergarten in 1998.
In this study, approaches to instruction are captured using a couple of broad indicators – the percentage of classrooms that use 3 or more hours per day of large group, teacher-led instruction, and the percentage of classrooms that provide children 1 or more hours per day of child-directed activities. They report that nearly one-third (29 percent) of kindergarten classrooms spend 3 or more hours per day in teacher-directed, large group activities, and less than half (43 percent in the report) of classrooms provide child-directed activity one or more hours per day.
These findings lead the authors to conclude that “today’s kindergarten classrooms focus on more advanced academic content, are more literacy-focused, and rely more heavily on teacher-directed whole group instruction.“ Other findings they report about physical education and use of standardized assessment, suggest kindergartners in 2006 have less PE and more testing than 1st graders in 1998. So, they conclude, “kindergarten in 2006 looks quite distinct from both kindergarten and first grade classrooms in the late nineties.”
What can we learn from these findings?
What is clear is that the academic content, and approaches to delivering that content, changed in dramatic ways between 1998 and 2006. What should we take away from these findings?
Academic content should be welcome in kindergarten but how it is delivered should be examined
Time spent on academic content, and even time spent on increasingly challenging academic content should not automatically be seen as a threat to kindergarten. Children learn from birth, so kindergarten should provide children with opportunities and supports appropriate for where they are. Early childhood education has always embraced the (academic and social and emotional) content that young children need to learn. Kindergartners (and all young children!) can learn academic content that is appropriate to where they are developmentally. However, large group, teacher directed instruction is not the only way for children to learn academic content. Hands-on investigative activities and small group instruction need to be a bigger part of how children take in academic content. Our expectations for young learners are built from many years of research and theory, as well as teachers’ knowledge of each child’s prior learning. As more children participate in early educational programs, it is not surprising that they come to kindergarten with different learning and developmental needs than when children did not regularly participate in such programs.
Maintaining Developmentally Appropriate Practice
Seeing a focus on academic content tells us what children are being taught, but it does not dictate how children should be taught. Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP) provides the best frame for how to teach young children. Young children learn best when taught using a variety of learning formats, including large and small group work, as well as instruction and play. Some content can be introduced to the whole group of children during a circle time or class meeting. Children can further investigate the content and learn it more deeply via small group experiences in which they play an active role in the investigation, through exploratory play alone and with other children, through one-on-one activities with a teacher, during routines such as setting a table for snack. Some content can be memorized for current and later use (e.g., the names of the letters of the alphabet and their sounds, the numerals that represent numbers). Even here, singing and moving to songs that emphasize letter sounds or involve counting may be more effective than a worksheet or rote activity. The goal is to provide a variety of learning opportunities, not to become reliant on a single approach. There is plenty of room within DAP to include academic content in kindergarten (See NAEYC’s latest book on DAP and kindergarten).
Social and emotional skills are important, but are they built into the classroom?
It is important to note that while teachers’ ratings of the importance of academic skills increased from 1998 to 2006, at both times they rated social and regulatory skills as being more critical for school readiness. This view is increasingly being voiced by educators and researchers alike. Unfortunately, the time teachers spend on building these skills is not captured by the data in this report. If the increased focus on literacy and math is partially driven by standards, then should social and emotional skills be written in to K-12 standards like they are in preschool standards? Experts from the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning conducted a review of state standards in 2013. They found that 49 states have specific standards for social and emotional development in preschool, while only 3 have specific standards in K-12). While many state K-12 standards include some standards for social and emotional learning within content areas, the report warns, “when [social and emotional learning] standards are integrated into other standards they are often scattered and lacking in comprehensiveness. Typically they are not systematically and developmentally sequenced across grade levels.”
The findings from this most recent analysis of data from the early Childhood Longitudinal studies may be the first to quantify changes in kindergarten over the past decade. But these data provide only a broad picture of the differences, and do not provide ready explanation for them. But understanding ways that kindergarten changed under NCLB is critical as states move to implement the Common Core State Standards. As critics have noted, the Common Core focuses only on English Language Arts and Mathematics, two areas that saw increased focus under NCLB. As a result, without concerted effort, the trends reported here are likely to become more, rather than less, pronounced, further driving kindergarten away from early childhood. NAEYC’s report on Common Core provides a framework for connecting Common Core to children’s development and ensuring high quality educational experiences for all children. NAEYC’s report on Kindergarten and Common Core outlines considerations to connect common core to better quality and more equitable kindergarten experiences for all children.
Helpful DAP Resources
DAP: Focus on Kindergartners (NAEYC book)
5 Guidelines for Effective Teaching (infographic)
10 Suggested Teaching Strategies (infographic)
By: Susan Friedman
Television, smart phones, tablets, video games - As children spend more time using screen media, what do parents think their children are learning? A national survey of more than 1500 parents of children ages 2-10, conducted by the Joanne Ganz Cooney Center, asked parents about how much their children learned from educational media.
The resulting report, Learning at home: families’ educational media use in America was released on January 24, 2014 and offers many insights.
Here are some highlights from the study:
- More than half of the parents surveyed (57%) believe their children have “learned a lot” from educational media
- The use of educational media drops at age four, just when screen time goes up
- Two to four year olds spend more time each day with educational media than any other age group
- Parents report that on average, their children spend 42 minutes a day with educational TV, compared to 5 minutes with educational content on mobile devices/computers and 3 minutes with educational video games
- Parents reported their children learned more from educational content on TV than from mobile devices
- Children are reading an average of 40 minutes a day, including 29 minutes with print, 8 minutes on computers, and 5 minutes using e-platforms
- Parents don’t believe their children learn as much about science from educational media as they do about other subjects
- Many parents observed that their children extend what they learned from educational media beyond the screen by asking questions, engaging in imaginative play, and wanting to do projects related to something they learned
Upon the study’s release the Joan Ganz Cooney Center gathered a group of educators, researchers, and those involved in children’s educational media to discuss the study.
Some highlights from the discussion:
- Parents may not feel as confident evaluating the educational value of content offered on mobile apps as they do evaluating the educational content TV
- Parents need more information about what is educational and how to evaluate the educational value apps and other new media
Educational media developers could think of ways to to address the needs of the children in low-income households in particular around the vocabulary gap
- For some low-income families, mobile devices are a lifeline to many essential services, and this may impact how children use educational media on those devices
- Not all children have the same level of access to educational media
To read the report and see video of researchers and educators discussing the findings, visit the Joan Ganz Cooney Center website.
How do you talk to families about their children's media use?
1. You sing the “clean-up song” when cleaning at home.
2. You recite from Don’t Let the Pigeon Drive the Bus! and Pete the Cat when conversation lags at a dinner party.
3. You chant "Ten Little Monkeys Jumping on the Bed" to yourself while walking down the street.
4. You hand the person in front of you at the DMV a tissue when she sneezes.
5. All the chairs in your house look really big to you.
6. You use the term "phonemic awareness" in your day-to-day conversations.
7. You explain to parents in the park how much their kids are learning when they dig in the dirt.
8. You tell a dad in the grocery store, who waits patiently as his son counts all the apples, how he's supporting his son's learning.
9. You are used to the fact that the children think the classroom is where you live.
10. You can find 20 ways to use empty yogurt containers as learning materials.
11. You can count a group of toddlers in 5 seconds.
12. You wash your hands at least 30 times a day
13. You can explain why the boys in your class are allowed to play with the dolls if they choose.
14. You know that a child who drew two random lines has a whole story to tell when you ask, "Tell me about your drawing." And you write it down.
15. You print more pictures of the young children in your class than your own family.
16. You wonder how dinosaurs, crayons, and Legos end up in your laundry every week.
17. You growl (or make a face) when called a babysitter.
18. You’ve actually eaten what you’ve baked as a class, no matter the preparation, ingredients, or outcome.
19. You know that when children draw, paint, make art - it's about the process and not the product.
20. You deserve a Nobel Peace Prize for the arguments you’ve mediated and tantrums you’ve redirected.
21. You can explain the toddler biting stage to the families of the child who bit AND the child who was bitten.
22. You can turn a simple nature walk or trip to the grocery store into an action-packed learning adventure…..and connect it to early learning standards.
23. You know that even though your paycheck does not reflect the work that you do, you go to bed at night knowing that you are shaping the world and wake up every morning with your superhero cape.
Thanks for all that you do!
Add your own ideas to the list by posting below!
It is with great sadness that we say goodbye to Polly Greenberg (1932–2013), former editor of NAEYC’s journal Young Children and author and editor of NAEYC books about early childhood education, children’s character, and social justice.
Throughout her 15 years as an NAEYC editor, Polly contributed to the cause of progressive social change through promoting educators’ understanding of the role of early childhood education, family, and community—in the home, in early childhood settings, and in the early primary grades.
Polly described her special interest as “the art, mechanics, and interdisciplinary science of achieving through childrearing and education – social change toward a truer democracy- one in which more people might experience fairly comfortable and somewhat fulfilling lives.”
We share with you Polly’s editor’s notes from “Let's Learn From an Inspiring Person! A Conversation With Vera B. Williams, Award Winning Author and Illustrator” published in the November 2000 issue of Young Children:
In this era of "drown them in books" many of you have often heard me voice my opinion that it isn't just books in which children must be immersed if early literacy and love of writing and reading are to result; it's good books with good art.
One way to find the best books is to buy (and get from your library) award-winning books. You'll find that some authors win one award after another - for one book after another. These are the outstanding authors and artists whose work you may want to watch for.
Vera B. Williams is among them, right up amongst the stars of contemporary literature for young children. Quite likely you've run into a few of her beautiful, brilliantly colorful books - perhaps her first book, A Chair for My Mother. Almost always Vera both tells and illustrates her wonderful tales, tales full of everyday people of various sages and ethnicities, doing everyday things that are very meaningful to them, and with lots of affection, extended family, and a lovely childlike zest for life.
- Polly Greenberg
NAEYC will honor Polly’s memory in a column, In Memoriam, in the March 2014 issue of Young Children.
Happy New Year from NAEYC! What will inspire your work with young children this year? We reviewed some of our web posts from this past year and found these ideas and inspirations. Make sure to share your own inspirations with us below.
1. Classroom Stories That Celebrate Teachers and Children
2. Support for Strong Start for America's Children
Children’s early learning experiences set the course for success in school and life. We were inspired by how many of our members and readers participated in the Strong Start campaign. Thanks to you all! If you haven’t participated yet you still can.
3. The New DAP Focus Series
These age specific DAP books offer ideas for Developmentally Appropriate Practice for each age and stage. If you’re new to DAP this online DAP primer explains DAP and offers links to many resources to help you in your teaching.
4. Ten Things to Say instead of “Good Job”
Wow! So many readers shared this article on social media so we know it really resonated. Recognize children's achievements and encourage their learning with these ten alternatives to saying "good job" from TYC.
5. Integrating STEM: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math
Early childhood teachers are preparing children to be critical thinkers by integrating Science, Technology, Engineering and Math learning in thoughtful ways. The opening session of the 2013 annual conference showed how the arts can be integrated into STEM learning. This excerpt from Spotlight on Young Children: Exploring Science shows science learning in action at the water table. And a new survey gathers information on how teachers are using the Technology and Young Children position statement in their work.
6. New Research on Dual Language Learners
This blog post updated us on the growing body of research which shows many benefits to growing up learning and thinking in two languages and offers ways early childhood teachers can support the dual language learners in their programs. A Young Children article offers more ideas for supporting the literacy development of dual language learners.
7. The 10 NAEYC Programs Standards
Did you know that there are over 6500 childcare programs accredited by NAEYC serving more than 1 million children? NAEYC accredited programs follow the 10 Program Standards. Read about them here.
8. Ten Things Every Parent Should Know about Play
Here’s another post that our readers shared widely on social media. Through play children learn and develop cognitive skills – like math and problem solving in a pretend grocery store and so much more.
9. Teachers Who Do Their Own Research!
An infant teacher writes in her journal as part of her self-reflection; another teacher explores how 2-year-olds make theories about physical and chemical changes taking place during cooking. These teachers ask and explore deep questions as they teach and then write about their own teacher research.
10. NAEYC Members
We are so proud and inspired by the many diverse and wonderful ways NAEYC members promote quality early childhood education in the work they do. Read about our members and share your story with us. Not a member? Learn about the many benefits of joining the NAEYC community.
Share what inspires you below!
By: Susan Friedman
NAEYC offers content that focuses on children’s learning and development, and from that perspective we highlight a number of resources as you sort through your thoughts about toys.
What’s so bad about princess toys? They’re gender typed to the max! Research on children and toys shows that if you want to develop children's physical, cognitive, academic, musical, and artistic skills, toys that are not strongly gender-typed are more likely to do this.
2. Time with adults matters in the digital age.
What bothers educators about attaching a tablet to a potty chair or bouncy seat? It’s designated time with an e-tablet without an adult, and in the digital age, time with adults is especially important! Michael Robb from the Fred Rogers Center wrote about the importance of infants and toddlers spending time with adults on the Fred Rogers Center Blog. For more guidance on young children and technology see the joint position statement on technology and young children from NAEYC and the Fred Rogers Center.
3. The type of toy matters.
Research shows that different toys impact children’s behavior in different ways. Some toys have a powerful influence on children’s thinking, interaction with peers, and creative expression. Others do not.
4. The best toys match a child's development.
What makes a good toy? Good toys for young children match their stages of development and emerging abilities.
5. Ask yourself some questions before selecting a toy.
Dr. Toy (Stevanne Auerbach) talks about the value of toys and what to think about before selecting a toy for your child.
6. Some of the most engaging toys might be items you already have.
Ever see a 3-year-old with bubble wrap or a 4-year-old with some tape? See these no cost toy suggestions for infants, toddlers, and preschooler.
7. Simple toys and tools can support children's science explorations.
Young children don't need highly specialized or expensive equipment to learn how to explore the natural world scientifically. They do need, as Rachel Carson mused in The Sense of Wonder, “the companionship of at least one adult who can share it.” Simple toys and tools with adult support can engage children as they explore natural phenomena in ways that will support their later science learning.
8. No matter what toy you select for a one-year-old she'll probably play with the box first.
We’ve all seen it - a baby who opens a present and plays with the box. Why do babies like the box more than the toy? The answer lies in her development!
Hope all this info helps guide you as you think about toys.
Close your eyes. Can you imagine children 100 years from now? What will their world look like? What will they play with? 100 years from now will children still build with wooden blocks?
Caroline Pratt, founder of the City & Country School in New York City is lauded as the creator of the unit block, the standard wooden blocks found in preschools, early childhood classrooms, and homes across the country and around the world. And as 2013 comes to a close, let's take a moment to celebrate, as this year marks the 100th anniversary of the unit block.
The Block Book, a classic in early childhood education describes the many ways young children learn through block building and block play. The book also highlights the historical factors that contributed to Caroline Pratt’s interest in hands on education – one being that the world was becoming increasingly complicated. She wanted to offer children a material (wooden building blocks) children could use in their play to recreate and understand their world.
Fellow educator Lucy Sprague Mitchell wrote about the increasingly complicated world that concerned Caroline Pratt in this way:
Modern children are born into an appallingly complicated world. A three-year-old in a city environment may be whisked to his steam-heated nursery in an electric elevator, fed from supplies which are ordered by telephone, sent up in a dumbwaiter, and stored in an electric refrigerator: he may be taken to a hole in the sidewalk and borne rapidly on an underground train to a distant place. The forces which move his elevator, warm his nursery, extend his mother’s voice to a grocery store, cook his milk, propel the subway train, are complicated and difficult to understand not only at three, at six, at nine, but even at forty. (excerpted from The Block Book, pg. 1 )
100 years ago the concern was about dumbwaiters, elevators, phone orders for groceries, and refrigerators – technology that educators thought might make it harder for children to understand the world.
Could Caroline Pratt and Lucy Sprague Mitchell have imagined a future with our technology? Probably not! But perhaps they could have imagined a future where no matter the technology, children continue to play, learn, and explore, recreating their world to learn and understand how it works. Yes some of the tools children use to understand and recreate their world (like apps for digital story telling) are different but some like the unit block are remarkably the same.
Happy birthday unit blocks!
Susan Friedman is Executive Editor of Digital Content at NAEYC. Many years ago, she taught preschool at City & Country School in New York, NY.
By: Anni Krummel Reinking
The opportunity to attend the NAEYC conference was an extraordinary experience not only for myself as a professional, but also for my classroom and school community. I was able to build great connections with multiple individuals. I gained information and tools needed to present quality professional development to my staff and other co-workers. I gained great information for my administrator. And, I also gained knowledge on developmentally appropriate ways to engage my students in all areas of the classroom from math and reading to science and social engagement. For example, I got more information on websites for tracking, interactive learning websites, and programs that will benefit the students in my classroom. I was also able to gain professional connections for my own research and professional development as an Ed.D. student.
While attending the sessions and networking with individuals, I learned many new ideas and also confirmed my passion and love for early childhood by interacting with like-minded individuals. However, the most beneficial learning experience I had was the hands-on sessions that provided implementable activities that I can do with my students and help the teachers I mentor implement immediately. I learned how to do science in a developmentally appropriate way for my students that will get them involved. I also learned, from the amazing Opening Ceremony by Wolf Trap for the Performing Arts, the dynamic ways the performing arts can be incorporated to help students learn core subject areas.
The most memorable session I attended was a smaller session about incorporating service learning into the classroom to help students understand what volunteering is, beyond raising funds and gathering canned goods. From this session, I was able to gain ideas and begin to brainstorm how I can incorporate service learning into what I am already doing in my classroom. It is important for any student to learn through active service and interacting with community leaders in many different areas.
Next year at the 2014 Annual Conference in Dallas, or at any NAEYC conference, I would recommend that participants plan! There are so many sessions and planning ahead to choose the ones you want to attend is essential. I would also recommend doing some of your own homework. After finding the sessions that sound interesting to you, investigate the topic, look up the presenter, and make sure the session is one that will be applicable to you. But most importantly, do not be afraid to session jump.
This is my second NAEYC conference, and overall the conference is always excellent and always brings great presenters, exhibitors, and professionals from around the world who are all passionate about one thing, early childhood education and the quality our children deserve.
Anni Krummel Reinking is one of the 2013 NAEYC Legacy Annual Conference Scholarship recipients. She is an early childhood special education teacher in Central Illinois and an Ed.D. student at Illinois State University.
By: Jamellah Reid
Attending last year’s Annual Conference in Atlanta, GA was one of my best memories as a professional in the field of Early Childhood Education. I anticipated meeting other professionals in the field from all over the nation, and I did. But I also gained a wealth of knowledge from sessions and brief conversations with conference attendees. This was all very valuable information that I was able to share with my peers who could not attend the conference.
While it was my first national conference, I managed to participate fully and comfortably by keeping some of the following tips in mind:
Plan ahead: There is SO much going on during all 4 days; the best way to maximize your experience is to plan out in advance (the date, time, location) of the events you would like to partake in.
Dress Appropriately: Wear comfortable shoes. It’s a big conference and there’s lot of walking.
Recharge: I carried light snacks and a drink to keep my energy up throughout the day. Finding time for larger meals was a challenge for me. I attended 2-3 sessions per day so I refueled with snacks and then ate one meal at the end of the day.
Organize: I used the final conference program to help me find my way around, by using the maps and layouts of the halls and rooms.
Bring a journal or notebook that has a pocket folder for note taking. The folders will give you room to collect informational brochures, business cards, pamphlets, and everything else you may pick up at the conference. I still have the journal I used last year, which I currently use as a resource.
Lastly, make sure you find time to reflect on your experiences from the conference events. There is usually so much educational information flying around from attendees, presenters, and displays in the exhibit hall. We forget that our primary reason for participating in the conference is for the early learning of young children and their families. The exhibit hall is always a great way to end a busy day of sessions and presentations!
I am looking forward to attending the 2013 NAEYC Annual Conference in my hometown of Washington DC, and learning even more this year!
Jamellah Reid is one of the 2012 NAEYC Legacy Annual Conference Scholarship recipients. She is currently the Center Director for the Georgetown Hill Early School and NRC in Rockville, MD.
By: Kyle Snow
Teachers, family child care providers, program directors, professional development specialists– all contribute to the education of our youngest children. But describing the individuals who make up the workforce serving children birth through age five has been remarkably challenging.
First, the dedicated people who work with the youngest children are counted in a variety of occupational categories (such as child care worker, preschool teacher, or educational administrator) not necessarily exclusive to early childhood. Many who care for the children of family, friends or neighbors don’t even appear on any public lists, making data gathering difficult.
Second, there has not been a lot of research describing the early childhood work force. The most recent large-scale nationally representative study of regulated early childhood programs was conducted more than 20 years ago.
That is why the recently released report, Number and Characteristics of Early Care and Education (ECE) Teachers and Caregivers: Initial Findings from the National Survey of Early Care and Education (NSECE) from the National Survey of Early Care and Education is especially important as it provides a real window into those professionals and programs providing early care and education to young children before kindergarten in centers and homes.
Some of the early findings confirm long-held views of the field (i.e., largely female, under-paid) while others may be a bit surprising (e.g., number of early educators with college degrees).
Here ’s some of what we learn from this report:
The size of the early childhood workforce
There are an estimated 1 million teachers and caregivers working in center-based programs and 3.8 million home-based teachers and caregivers. About 41% of center-based teachers work in programs that are at least partly publicly-funded (e.g., Head Start, Early Head Start, public pre-k). Nearly all (97%) of home-based teachers and providers who are listed (included on federal, state or local listings of providers) are paid, while only about 25% of those not listed (individuals regularly caring for at least unrelated child but not listed on any public list of providers) are paid.
The Educational Background
One of the ongoing debates in early childhood focuses on the importance of completing a bachelor’s degree. There is general agreement that both degree level and quality early childhood content are critical components in teacher training. Standards for the preparation of teachers are also important. This national survey collected data on degrees and field of study, although only the level of degree attained is provided in this initial report (addressing the issue of the content of the degree must wait for future reports).
Among teachers and caregivers (including teachers, assistants and aides) in centers, 39% have at least a bachelor’s degree (BA). About 19% have a high school diploma or less, 28% have some college credit but no degree, and 17% have an associate degree (AA). There is a striking difference in educational levels based on the age of child served. For those working with children age 3 to 5 years, 45% have a bachelor’s degree, compared to 19% of those working with infants and toddlers. Conversely, 28% of those working with infants and toddlers have a high school diploma or less, compared to just 13% of those working with 3 to 5 year olds.
Home-based teachers and caregivers are less likely than their center-based counterparts to have completed any college degree (with 32% having either an associate or bachelor’s degree). Listed home-based teachers and providers generally have a high school diploma or less (34%) or some college credit (34%). Nearly half (47%) of unlisted home-based teachers and providers have completed high school or less.
While the report confirms the common view that early childhood professionals receive low wages, this report also shows that there is a wide range in salaries.
Among center-based teachers and caregivers (again including teachers, assistants and aides), hourly wages were higher among teaching staff for 3- to 5-year-olds than for infants and toddlers ($11.90 versus $9.30). Teaching staff with a BA or higher had hourly wages substantially higher ($14.70) than those with AA degrees ($11.00) and some college but no degree ($9.30) or high school diploma or less ($9.00).
Striking differences in wages were found when considering education and the center’s type of sponsorship and funding. In school-sponsored centers, teaching staff with a BA or higher degree earned a median hourly wage of $20.60 compared to $15.90 for those in Head Start funded centers, $16.20 in centers with Public Pre-K funded programs not sponsored by schools or Head Start, and $13.90 in all other centers. Differences were less dramatic for those with high school degrees or less, ranging from $11.60 per hour in school-sponsored centers to $8.00 in Head Start funded programs, $8.40 in Public Pre-K funded programs, and $9.60 in all other centers. This suggests that centers that are not sponsored by public schools and that do not receive Head Start or Public Pre-K funding have salary schedules that offer less incentive for higher levels of education. More than half of all centers (59%) were found to be in this category of funding or sponsorship.
When considering the hourly median salaries, the study points out that Census data indicate that the average hourly wage across all occupations for workers with a BA degree is about $27 an hour.
Years of Experience
Despite the low wages, center-based teachers and caregivers have a great deal of experience, with a median of 10 years. As with wages, the mean was found to be higher than the median, suggesting a small number of teachers and caregivers with a very large number of years of experience. Just 23% of all center-based teaching staff have 5 or fewer years of experience. In other words, 77% have more than 5 years of experience. This reflects a stability in the workforce overall (although not necessarily within a specific program) that is noteworthy. Listed home-based providers also have substantial experience, with a remarkable 84% reporting more than 5 years of experience. Unlisted providers were the least experienced, but still 50% reported having more than 5 years of experience.
A striking finding from the NRC report was the lack of benefits (generally health care, retirement, and paid time-off) received by many in the early care and education work force. The importance of these benefits is underscored by a recent study of the health and well-being of Head Start teachers in Pennsylvania.
Teachers and providers in both center- and home-based settings were asked if they had health insurance, and whether this was provided to them through their employer, through their spouse, an individual plan, or a public health fund. Here, the news is positive – three-quarters of teachers and caregivers in centers, and in listed and unlisted home programs reported they had health insurance.
Key takeaway points
The data provided in this initial report are extraordinary. Future reports are likely to be just as valuable. Being able to define the number of early care and education teachers, their education levels, whether or not they have health insurance and other benefits and other general characteristics is critical in defining the profession. Data reported here offer some confirmation of some long held views, especially as to how underpaid early childhood teachers and caregivers are when compared to other professionals, given the importance early learning and their work. These disparities are even more striking given the higher than expected level of educational qualifications and years of experience of many in the early childhood work force. The findings suggest that recent state and national efforts to focus on early childhood professional development have made a difference, and they underscore that investments in professional development are worthwhile because of the professionals’ commitment to remain in the field. The study also makes clear the need for additional funding with a target of improving compensation, with particular focus on equity for those working with infants and toddlers.
Many questions remain that should be addressed in future analyses, for example, how do educational qualifications and salaries vary by professional role (lead teacher, teacher, assistant or aide)? What is the content of the degrees held by teachers and caregivers? How common is specialized content in child development and early childhood education? We are likely to be turning to these data for many years to come as we work to advance high quality services for more young children and strengthen the early childhood profession.
Resources and Additional Information:
Number and Characteristics of Early Care and Education (ECE) Teachers and Caregivers: Initial Findings from the National Survey of Early Care and Education (NSECE) (2013) Information about the study's methodology
Some technical notes about this study - What you should keep in mind:
It must be noted that the data provided in the report (and future reports) are estimates. This means that they are the best estimate that can be obtained based upon the sample and design of the study. It also means there is room for error – the standard error (this is similar to the “plus or minus” when you hear results from public opinion polls). Generally, the smaller the error, the better the estimate is.
This study sought to include all settings, including licensed and unlicensed center- and home-based programs. It also sought to identify all teachers and caregivers, including those working for pay and those not paid. For home-based providers, the study includes those who are “listed” – meaning they are appear on state or national lists (including licensing, registries, or Early Head Start) of regulated providers as well as “unlisted” providers who were identified by contacting a sample of households directly to identify individuals caring for at least 1 unrelated child between birth and kindergarten entry, for at least 5 hours per week. As such, the workforce this study describes is much broader than in previous studies, including for example, an unpaid neighbor providing care for one child as well as a public preschool teacher in a classroom of many children.
The report makes an important note that looking at the average (the “mean”) wage may be misleading because it can be affected by a few very high, or a few very low, paid individuals. Because the report found that some teachers are paid far above the mean, it uses the median estimate instead. This estimate describes the wage in the middle of the entire population – it is the 50th percentile value – the wage that is higher than that earned by half of the field and lower than that earned by half of the field.
Wage data is provided only for center-based teachers and caregivers only. It is important to note that these figures include all instructional staff and do not differentiate by roles, for example, lead teacher, teacher, assistant teacher or aide.